DIAGNOSIS

Q.14. How do you diagnose epilepsy ?

Ans:Epilepsy is diagnosed by obtaining a carefull and detailed medical history from the person who has witnessed the attack. It is important to note that none of the investigations by themselves diagnose epilepsy. EEG can aid in the diagnosis.

Q.15. How is epilepsy classified and what are the types of seizures:

Ans:A simple classification of epilepsy is
A) Generalised epilepsy.
Generalised tonic clonic seizures
Absences
Myoclonic epilepsy
B) Partial epilepsy.
Simple partial seizure
Complex partial seizure
C) Partial becoming generalized.

Q.16. What is difference between generalised and partial seizure ?

Ans: In generalized seizure the person is unconscious and hence will not be able to appreciate the seizure himself. In partial seizure the patient is fully aware of attack eg. Simple Partial Seizure or partially aware of the attack eg. Complex partial seizure

Q.17. What is Generalised Tonic Clonic Seizure(GTCS) ?

Ans: This is the commonest type of epilepsy where a person falls unconscious with jerky movements of hand and legs, frothing at the mouth with / without tongue bite and urinary incontinence.

Q.18. What is absences ?

Ans: This is exclusively seen in children between the age of 5 - 15 yrs and consists
of abrupt cessation of ongoing activities with unresponsiveness and blinking of eye lids lasting for 5-10 seconds. These attacks recur 10-100 times / day.

Q.19.What is Juvenile Myoclonic epilepsy (JME) ?

Ans: This is usually seen in the younger age group of 10-20 yrs and consists of sudden jerking movements of the hands resulting in dropping of objects and at times jerking movements of legs resulting in abrupt fall to the ground; usually occurs within an hour or 2 after waking up; sleep deprivation precipitates the same.

Q.1. Q.20. What is petit mal ?

Ans: Petit Mal are nothing but "small attacks" which include both absence and complex partial seizure.

Q.21.What is Complex Partial Seizure(CPS)?

Ans: Here the patient does not loose consciousness, does not fall to the ground. The attack consists of sudden onset of unresponsiveness, partially preserved consciousness, staring, chewing & champing, lip smacking movements - all lasting for 15-30 seconds. At times this may be followed by tonic clonic seizure as described above.

Q.22. What is Simple partial seizure(SPS)?

Ans: In Simple Partial Motor seizures the patient is fully conscious and experiences jerking movements of one half of the body starting in the hand or foot or the face. This may also extend to become Tonic clonic Seizure. In Simple Partial Sensory Seizures the patient feels jerking, numbness, starts in foot / hand and spreading to one half of the body.

Q.23. What is status epilepticus ?

Ans: Status epilepticus is a condition where the seizures continue beyond 30 minutes or the person continues to be unconscious between the frequent attacks. This is medical emergency and requires immediate hospitalization.